New York State Even Start Family Literacy


Online Guide for Administrators


Performance Indicators - Questions and Answers





  1. In conjunction with performance indicators and operating a quality program, New York State uses the term "representativeness." What does it mean? (February 2005)

    When reviewing the results of a program, partnerships consider outcomes reported in the System of Performance Indicators. Collectively, the indicators highlight key accomplishments of each program in the areas of adult, child, and parent. The indicator results are often presented as a percentage (e.g., 85 %) or a fraction (e.g., 12/15). This is a first step in reviewing partnership results.

    The second step in reviewing partnership results is to consider the extent to which the results reflect the total population served. For example, Partnership A reports that 100 percent of the school-age children were reading on grade level. Presented as a fraction, the result is 40 out of 40 children. Partnership A serves a total of 50 school-age children. The representativeness in this example is 40 out of 50 or 80 percent. In this case, Partnership A can be confident that the data adequately depicts the results of the program. 

    In another example, Partnership B reports 5 out of 5 school-age children reading on grade level. Partnership B serves 40 children. The representativeness in this example is 12.5 percent (5 divided by 40). In this case, Partnership B's data does not adequately depict the results of the program. Consequently, Partnership B should consider other data sources to more fully understand the impact of the program. 

    In general, the standard representativeness level used by most evaluators is two-thirds. 

  2. What is New York State's objective for representativeness? (February 2005)

    One of the objectives of the New York State Even Start Family Literacy Technical Assistance System is:
    "In two-thirds or more of Even Start Family Literacy programs, in their second year or more of operation, at least 15 families are represented in each of the relevant performance indicators."

    The intent of this objective is to demonstrate the impact Even Start Family Literacy has on a significant number of families served.

  3. What are the representativeness formulas used on the program report? (February 2005)

Adult Indicator Representativeness All adults minus (adults which are not included in 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3 or did not receive a GED in a past year or are not attending high school now)
divided by
Total number of adults enrolled


Indicator 1.7 A & B Representativeness (PLS-4) Number of children included in indicator 1.7 (have pre and post-test)
divided by
all children over 6 months of age and equal to or less than 4 years old as of December 1 of the program year plus any children that are in Kindergarten and have a pre-PLS score plus children that are 5 years old and not attending Kindergarten


Indicator 1.8 Representativeness (Attendance) Number of children who are enrolled for one month 
between September and June
(children only enrolled in July and August are excluded)
divided by
Number of children who are enrolled for one month 
between September and June
(children only enrolled in July and August are excluded)

Note: Representativeness for indicator 1.8 is always 100 percent.


Indicator 1.9 & 1.10 Representativeness (Promotion and Reading on Grade Level) Number of school-age children included in indicator 1.9 and 1.10 who have been enrolled for more than six months 
divided by
Number of school-age children


Indicator 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, & 1.14 Representativeness (Parenting) Number of families who have a pre- and post-score entered in each scale
divided by
Total number of families enrolled after July 1, 2002




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